Dry Eye Syndrome
The tears your eyes produce are necessary for overall eye health and clear vision. Dry eye means that your eyes do not produce enough tears or that you produce tears that do not have the proper chemical composition.
Often, dry eye is part of the natural aging process. It can also be caused by blinking or eyelid problems, medications like antihistamines, oral contraceptives and antidepressants, a dry climate, wind and dust, general health problems like arthritis or Sjogren’s syndrome and chemical or thermal burns to your eyes.
If you have dry eye, your symptoms may include irritated, scratchy, dry, uncomfortable or red eyes, a burning sensation or feeling of something foreign in your eyes and blurred vision. Excessive dry eyes may damage eye tissue, scar your cornea (the front covering of your eyes) and impair vision and make contact lens wear difficult.
If you have symptoms of dry eye, see your optometrist for a comprehensive examination. Dry eye cannot be cured, but your optometrist can prescribe treatment so your eyes remain healthy and your vision is unaffected.
Treatment of Dry Eye
Some treatments that your optometrist might prescribe include blinking more frequently, increasing humidity at home or work, using artificial tears and using a moisturizing ointment, especially at bedtime. In some cases, small plugs are inserted in the corner of the eyes to slow tear drainage. Sometimes, surgical closure of the drainage ducts may be recommended.
Treating any underlying eyelid disease, such as blepharitis, helps as well. This may call for antibiotic or steroid drops plus frequent lid scrubs with an antibacterial shampoo.
Quite a few products are in testing for possible dry eye treatment. For example, trehalose (a carbohydrate) improved dry eye symptoms in small studies, but further testing is needed.
If contact lens wear is the cause of your dry eyes, your eyecare practitioner may want to switch you to a different lens or have you wear your lenses for fewer hours each day. In a few cases, it is recommended that contact lens wear be discontinued altogether until the dry eye problem is cleared up.